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Dual or second citizenship: what is the difference and whether Ukrainians can have several passports

What is dual citizenship?

What is dual citizenship?

In Ukraine, many do not understand the difference between “dual citizenship” and “second citizenship“. Dual (multiple) citizenships is a situation when a person has at the same time citizenship of two or more states. In addition, each of them may require a person to perform all of his civil duties. This status becomes possible for citizens of those countries between which an agreement on dual citizenship, that is, the mutual recognition of both citizenships, is concluded. At the same time, both countries recognize for their citizens the existence of both citizenships as equivalent, and “dual citizens” – retain the civil rights of both states.

There are few countries in the world that have signed the relevant treaties among themselves. As a rule, these are former metropolises and their colonies. For example, the United Kingdom has such a treaty with Canada, India, Australia and others, France with Canada, Portugal with Brazil, Spain with a number of Latin American countries.

Second citizenship (third, fourth, etc.) is a situation where a person acquires second citizenship without the knowledge of the “native” state, of which he is a citizen from the beginning.

How can the authorities find second citizenship and what kind of punishment is provided for a second passport?

The Law of Ukraine does not obligated to notify the authorities about the receipt of another passport, but only reserves the right for a person. Only notification can be considered a reason for termination of Ukrainian citizenship, but automatic termination does not occur. This is the main problem of legislative regulation of citizenship in Ukraine. In fact, the authorities have no obligation to check that people have a second citizenship. And even if it becomes known that you have a second passport, a person may be deprived of Ukrainian citizenship., but the president (and according to the law, only the president has the right to deprive the citizenship of Ukraine) is not obliged to do so. That is, there is a field for speculations and “double approaches” – why one politician or businessman is not deprived of citizenship, although information about his second passport pops up in the media, and another is deprived of Ukrainian citizenship?

According to various estimates, in Ukraine, about half a million people have second passports (mainly Poland, Russia, Hungary, Romania). The authorities of Ukraine can find out about their second citizenship by asking the official authorities of another country whether this person has the citizenship of this country. Also, sources of information can be the database of customs departments (for which passports a person crossed the border), the tax authorities (for which passport the company is registered).

Can citizens of Ukraine have one or more passports of other states?

Can citizens of Ukraine have one or more passports of other states?

Each country has its own laws regarding obtaining a second citizenship and how it officially refers to the “old” citizenship of a person. However, the cost of such programs is much higher – more than 1 million euros for Malta and more than 2 million euros for Cyprus. At the same time, many European countries in exchange for investments (the purchase of real estate or government bonds, the establishment of a business) provide a residence permit status (residence permit) or permanent residence (permanent residence) with a further possibility of obtaining citizenship. At the same time, some countries, for example, Germany, when issuing their passports, require that they provide written evidence that a person has left the previous one. 

What is Double Nationality?

Has two or more nationalities who is a child of a Mexican citizen born abroad; also who is born in national territory and his mother or father (or both) are foreigners.

Whether or not you have dual nationality depends on the laws of the other country involved. It may be that the other country considers you it’s national even if you do not accept nationality. In addition, in some countries, the laws prohibit the renunciation of nationality under any circumstances or require a formal act of resignation.

Having dual or multiple nationalities can bring some benefits such as employment opportunities, the right to access social benefits (such as education, medical care, pensions), property rights and unrestricted residence rights.

Is Mexico allowed dual citizenship?

Is Mexico allowed dual citizenship?

Since 1998, the Nationality Law of Mexico allows Mexican people to have another nationality in addition to Mexican nationality. This fact has great relevance because, in effect, the double (or multiple) nationalities implies an extension of rights for the person who has it. However, there are also responsibilities that arise from having more than one nationality, which is important to know.

If I have another nationality besides the Mexican one and I go abroad, is there anything I should do?

  • In terms of travel, when a Mexican person has some other nationality it is important that in his departure or arrival to the national territory “he holds, without exception, as a national” of Mexico (Nationality Law, art.12).
  • If you have dual citizenship and travel to the country of your other nationality, you may have to face some situations such as:
  • The obligation to perform military service;
  • Face legal proceedings for offenses against the laws of that country, even if they were committed abroad;
  • Fiscal obligations;
  • No recognition of your Mexican nationality by the other country;
  • Limited consular protection by Mexico.

Therefore, if you have another nationality, in addition to the Mexican one, and you intend to travel to the country of which you are also a national, it is advisable to contact the embassy or consulate of that country closest to your home in Mexico, to know your rights and obligations. Remember that while you are in the country of your other nationality, the Mexican government can not provide you with consular protection and you will be treated as a national of that country.

In addition, it is important to be aware that having more than one passport can result in more stringent security checks by immigration authorities when crossing borders.